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225      “If you take a bale of hay”: Wolf, “The Tinkerings of Robert Noyce,” p. 356.

227      “I cannot overemphasize”: Weiner, “How the Transistor Emerged,” p. 31.

228      “This circuit was actually spoken over”: Ibid., p. 25.

231      “With the advent of the transistor”: Dummer, Electronic Invention s, p. 128.

“Dummer was preaching”: Alan Gibson, quoted in Braun and Macdonald, Revolution in Miniature, p. 94.

233      “These attempts [at miniaturization]”: Noyce et al., Scientific American, p. 4.

234      “the development of a semiconductor”: Hansen, The New Alchemists, p. 96.

235      “At that time, radio was still “: Wolff, “The Genesis of the Integrated Circuit,” p. 47.

238      “This shaping concept”: Kilby, “Miniaturized Electronic Circuits,” column 2, line 25.

“It is possible… to achieve”: Ibid., column 7, line 20.

242      “The idea was shamelessly simple”: Author interview with Lehovec, June 1983.

243      “When this [the planar process]”: Wolff, “The Genesis of the Integrated Circuit,” p. 51.

245      “There was a lot of work”: Robert Lloyd, quoted in Hansen, The New Alchemists, p. 104.

248      “It was roughly as though “: Wise, “IBM’ s $5,000,000,000 Gamble,” p. 119.