BIT by BIT
An Illustrated History of Computers
TICKNOR & FIELDS NEW YORK 1984
Copyright © 1984 by Stan Augarten
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, except as may be expressly permitted by the 1976
Copyright Act or in writing from the publisher. Requests for permission should be addressed in writing to Ticknor & Fields, 52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, New York 10017.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Bit by bit.
1. Computer s-History. I. Title.
QA76.17.A94 1984 621.3819 ‘5’09 84-2508
ISBN 0-89919-30 2-1 (pbk.)
K 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acknowledgment is gratefully extended to the following:
Arthur W. Burks for excerpt on page 99 from his speech “Who Invented the General-Purpose Electronic Digital Computer?”
IBM Corporation for IBM song on page 69; for quotations of Thomas Watson, Sr., on page 167; for CTR song on page 179; and for IBM song on page 180.
W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., for excerpt on page 195 from Science for the Citizen by Lancelot Hogben. Published by W. W. Norton & Co. in 1957.
Ziff-Davis Publishing Company for excerpt on pages 273-74 from editorial by Arthur Salsberg, reprinted from Popular Electronics, January 1975. Copyright © 1975 by Ziff-Davis Publishing Company.