Belden, Thomas and Marva. The Lengthening Shadow: The Life of Thomas J. Watson. Boston : Little, Brown, 1962.

Drucker, Peter F. “Thomas Watson ‘s Principles of Modern Management.” Esquire, December 1983, p.194.

Engelbourg, Saul. International Business Machines: A Business History. New York: Arno Press, 1976.

Fishman, Katherine Davis. The Computer Establishment. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.

Greenwald, John. “The Colossus That Works.” Time, 11 July 1983, p. 44.

Hurd, Cuthbert C. “Computer Development at IBM.” In Metropolis et al., A History of Computing, pp. 389-418.

—. “Early Computers at IBM” Annals 3 (April 1981): 163-182.

Metropolis, N.; Howlett, J.; and Rota, Cian-Carlo, eds. A History of Computing in the Twentieth

Century. New York: Academic Press, 1980.

Moody’s Industrial Manual, 1930-1940.

Phelps, Byron E. “Early Electronic Computer Developments at IBM.” Annals 2 (July 1980): 253-269.

Rodgers, William. Think: A Biography of the Watsons and I.B.M. New York: Stein & Day, 1969.

Sheean, Robert. “Tom Jr.’s I.B.M.” Fortune, September 1956, p. 113.

Sobel, Robert. IBM: Colossus in Transition. New York: Times Books, 1981.

“Special Issue: IBM 701,” Annals 5 (April 1983): passim.

Wulforst, Harry. Breakthrough to the Computer Age. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1982.



167      “Clothes don’t make the man”: Sobel, IBM, p.33.

“Pack your todays with effort”: Ibid., p. 36.

“You cannot be a success”: Ibid., p. 55.

“We have different ideas”: Ibid.

169      “They say money isn’t everything”: Ibid., p. 33.

171      “It is the men who are willing”: Ibid., p. 26.

179      “Mr. Watson is the man”: Ibid., p. 57.

180      “Our products are known”: Greenwald, “The Colossus That Works,” p. 46.

“When IBM was under the old man”: Fishman, The Computer Establishment, p. 57.

185      “The company is in the family”: Sobel, IBM, p.112.

186      “The thing that I am looking forward to”: Ibid., pp. 113-114.

“There is a reason for my success”: Fishman, The Computer Establishment, p. 51.

“Frankly I can hardly wait to begin”: Sobel, IBM, p. 115.

187      “He had a large desk”: Ibid., p. 102.

188      “If Aiken and my father “: Fishman, The Computer Establishment, p. 36.

191      “It dawned on us “: Ibid., p. 40.

“Because they could not imagine”: Hurd, “Early Computers,” p. 166.

193      “layout the department “: Wulforst, Breakthrough, p. 174.